Морской фрахт судна

Freight is the cargo and its transportation by water, as well as the amount of money that is paid when transporting goods and passengers, established at the conclusion of the charter contract. Depending on the terms of the contract, this may include payment for the loading or unloading of these products. Answering the question of what freight is, dictionaries usually give only a vague definition of transportation charges.

Sea freight is one of the most popular concepts in the field of foreign economic activity. It first appeared in the Russian language more than three hundred years ago and meant the transportation of goods by water. The modern freight market operates chartering in accordance with the law. In Russia, this is the Merchant Shipping Code, in which freight is a fixed fee for the delivery of goods. To calculate the cost, the sea line operator takes into account the base rate (BAS), mandatory premiums (Mandatory surcharges) and additional services (VAS). BAS is determined by the route, the properties of the transported products. Mandatory surcharges – something that is not covered by the base rate, for example, the cost of servicing sea terminals, ground transportation services. VAS is offered to the customer additionally. This may be the cleaning of container modules, delivery of oversized cargo, installation of special equipment, temperature and humidity control.

Chartering (freight)

In practice, the term “freight” or “freight” is a fairly broad concept and includes the process of cargo transportation of goods on board a ship from one port to another. This is a place on the vehicle or the entire vehicle, which is provided and used by the carrier to deliver containers to the customer. Here, everyone has clear interests: the customer needs delivery at a certain time, the transport company is interested in the timely delivery of the consignment and in providing the best service. Parties to the agreement are the charterer (person or company for whom the goods are transported, the customer) and the charterer (the one who undertakes to fulfill the contract).

Dead freight – dead freight, a term known in sea freight, but unfamiliar to the average man. In simple terms, this is an underload of the vessel. Payment was made for unused space on the ship, the cargo was not actually loaded. In this case, the captain has legal grounds to send a statement to the shipper.
The difference between the transportation of a consignment from chartering lies in the legal aspect. In the contract of carriage of goods, the goods are delivered from the sender to the recipient. Chartering assumes that one party is obliged to provide the ship or a place on it, but the charterer is not obliged to accompany the goods. This agreement is closer to the lease, as in fact the tenant pays for the temporary use of the vessel. Chartered vessels may only be operated for merchant shipping.

Chartering of ships, ships

Chartering of vessels (vessel) is a process in which a marine vessel is searched and an agreement is concluded on a partial or full lease of transportation of goods from one port to another. In general, it is divided into several types:

  1. Freight for 1 sea voyage (one voyage C / P).
  2. Freight for several consecutive flights (consecutive voyage C / P). The agreed transportation occurs continuously, the owner of the vessel cannot rent it to another client until the cargo has been transported in full.
  3. General contract is an agreement that provides for transportation during a certain period, and which clearly indicates all the conditions of delivery and shipment, the procedure for paying for services, etc.

Businessmen often face the need for freight when they embark on a commercial activity. This is an obvious fact, because in order to sell a product or be able to provide any services, you need to deliver it to a warehouse, salon or production. For organizations, cargo owners resort to brokers due to the fact that they have already established business relations and have experience in this field of activity. Our company Sapa Shipping is aimed at a successful result, because our priority goal is to effectively help and quickly respond to any requests and requirements of customers. Since the company has been specializing in shipping for a long time, it will be easy for our specialists to arrange for chartering vessels or space on board the vessel in the shortest possible time in case of a small transportation.

Freight Rate

Freight rate is the amount that must be paid. It is set in the charter per unit of measure for the amount of cargo (per ton or piece) and will always depend on the length of the route and the size of the cargo. Groups of shipping companies that operate on specific ocean routes (conferences) set uniform freight rates. But companies that are not related to them are called outsiders. They also have the right to set their rates, as a rule, more favorable.

The basic rate of sea freight is the direct price for the delivery of certain goods by sea for one port of loading and one port of unloading. Most often, it is fixed for six months or a year. At the same time, in additional ports there is an allowance for loading and unloading the consignment itself, which is better to know in advance when evaluating the cost of services yourself.
How to calculate the rate of sea freight:

  1. Freight rate negotiation
  2. Receiving an application from the sender or recipient of the cargo
  3. Bookings placement
  4. Booking confirmation by line
  5. Coordination of the date of shipment / loading of the container
  6. Container delivery to port
  7. Loading on board the ship
  8. Transporting the container by sea
  9. Possible transhipment at ports of transshipment with indirect service.
  10. Vessel’s approach to the port of destination
  11. Unloading the container at the destination port

Freight Cost

For beginners, the question often arises: what makes up the cost of freight? Let’s try to figure it out with the example of container transportation. Total cost consists of:

  • Basic bid
  • Mandatory surcharges
  • Fees for additional services

Rate – a value depending on the size and type of container, port of departure and destination. Mandatory surcharges are calculated separately and are intended to compensate for the costs of the shipowner, which in turn are intermittent. This includes costs at terminals in ports and fuel costs. These fees are required for each shipment. The fuel surcharge (BAF) takes into account fluctuations in silo prices (oil and fuel itself). The adjustment of the premium occurs every month. Terminal Handling Charges (THC) – payment for handling cargo at the terminal in ports. DOCS is a fee for documents that is needed to pay for the publication of transport documents at the port of unloading and loading. Value-Added Services (VAS) – additional services that the customer may require, and the transport company will gladly provide them in order to expand the service. For example, the transportation cost of oversized cargo, fasteners of the refrigeration unit, and cleaning of the container after the goods have been unloaded will affect the cost of freight.

Sea Freight

Sea freight is synonymous with the words “freight charges” or “shipping costs”. Although sometimes the sea transportation itself is directly implied here.
Most forwarding companies indicate the approximate cost of services, since the route and conditions of transportation sometimes change, and they do not immediately calculate tariffs, or are not completely familiar with new changes in the field of international law of the sea.
The process itself consists of paperwork (financial issues are decided, applications for cargo transportation are made, seats are reserved on the ship and confirmation is received) and the delivery of goods to the port itself, then to the ship.

Additional factors that affect the price of sea freight include the transport accessibility of the port of discharge. The Panama and Bosphorus Straits are the Achilles’ heel of all forwarders. Turkey and Panama require a large fee for passing ships. And if oversized, dangerous goods are transported, or non-standard in shape and size, then other costs arise. For goods coming from Asia, the time of year matters. If transit passes through the territory of military operations or in a terrorist zone, the cost of delivery increases significantly.

Benefits of maritime chartering:

  1. The cheaper cost of shipping, unlike other modes of transport.
  2. Relatively minimal transportation time, because a vessel can bring from several tens to several thousand containers per call, for such a trip, only large sea vessels can provide such volumes at a time.
  3. Guaranteed cargo safety. Since the products are in the container, as if in a closed barrel and in such a sealed box, it is delivered to the port of discharge to the recipient.
  4. Freight traffic without delay. That is, the goods are in constant motion and difficulties with a little downtime can arise only at the port of discharge due to very bad weather.
  5. The ability to track transportation in real time.

Freight in Novorossiysk

Freight in Novorossiysk is of great interest, as it is the largest port city of great commercial importance. Here are goods intended both for transportation around the country and for passing the export-import procedure. Our company offers assistance in concluding a charter contract in Novorossiysk in all areas, including abroad. The most affordable prices in combination with prompt delivery – the distinctive quality of our service.

In addition to overall containerized cargo transportation, we organize forwarding inside the port, for example, conducting a veterinary inspection, cargo inspection customs, and we also prepare all the accompanying documents and deliver the goods from the terminal to the port, perform loading and unloading, using the help of stevedore companies.

Sapa Shipping LLC – we are time-tested.